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Despite the requirements of many jurisdictions to avoid deep-water petroleum activities near sensitive habitats, it remains uncommon for legally mandated setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified. For psay, there are no mandated separation distances of industry infrastructure and deep-water corals for both the Brazilian lasy Norwegian case studies, rather the need for spatial restrictions is evaluated on a case-by-case basis as part of the environmental impact assessment process.

BOEM has taken a precautionary approach and defined mitigation areas in which oil and gas activity is prohibited. These areas are determined from interpretation of seismic survey data.

Previous studies have demonstrated that these seismic data can reliably predict the last roche posay of chemosynthetic and deep-water coral communities (Roberts et al. Regulations are issued in the form of a Notice to Lessees (NTL) issued by узнать больше здесь US BOEM. Last roche posay surveys of the tracklines of anchors are typically conducted, but can occur after last roche posay installation of the infrastructure if the plan is approved.

However, if the well is drilled near a known high-density community or archeological site, then visual surveys are mandatory prior to installation. If the ROV surveys reveal high-density chemosynthetic oosay coral communities, the operator is required to report their occurrence and submit copies of the images to BOEM for review.

Avoidance measures have to be undertaken for all potential and known high-density last roche posay читать больше identified during these assessments. Beyond the borders of the BOEM mitigation areas, there are last roche posay set-back posa for oil and gas infrastructure in US territorial waters. These distances are primarily based on a contracted study of impacts from deep-water structures (CSA, 2006).

The set-back distance for sea-surface discharges of drilling muds and cuttings was originally 305 m, corresponding to the average distance over which impacts were detected in the CSA (2006) study.

Following more recent discoveries of abundant deep-water coral communities in and near astrazeneca plc ads hard-ground sites within the mitigation areas, the set-back last roche posay was doubled to 610 m (2000 feet). The set-back distance for the placement of anchors and other seafloor infrastructure is 150 m (500 feet) from the mitigation areas, but this may be reduced to 75 m (250 feet) if a waiver is requested.

In addition to specific targets for avoidance or establishment of protected areas, the use of reference areas can also assist in spatial management, and in the testing of EIA last roche posay more generally.

Comparison of reference sites with those proximal to industry operations allows the effects of drilling and routine operations to be assessed, properly attribute any changes in the ecological last roche posay, and further inform spatial management practice (Iversen et al.

Some real-time monitoring and responsive action has also been undertaken in the benthic environment. In Norway, Statoil has monitored the potential impacts on a coral reef system at the Morvin oil field, which included sediment sampling, video observations, sensors and sediment traps (Tenningen et al.

The sensor data were available in real time and enabled drillers to observe if selected reef sites were being impacted by drilling activities. Regardless of the structure of the monitoring program, lasf periodic post-development assessments, both within development area and in appropriate reference areas, are required to evaluate the efficacy of the implemented protections.

Deep-sea species, assemblages, and ecosystems have a set of biological and ecological attributes (e. In general, deep-sea organisms are slower growing and more long lived than their shallow-water counterparts and their distributions, abundance, and species identity remain largely unknown at most locations.

The combination of their sensitivity to disturbance last roche posay the direct threat posed by industrial activity (of any kind) should stipulate a precautionary approach to the management of deep-sea resources. A comprehensive management plan requires accurate environmental maps of deep-sea oil and gas production areas. These maps could last roche posay more effectively generated by creating a central archive of industry-generated acoustic remote sensing data, including seismic data and bathymetry, and making these data available to managers and scientists via open-access platforms.

Predictive last roche posay modeling can also contribute to the development of distribution maps for specific taxa. Eoche surveys should be carried out first at a regional last roche posay if no historical data are available. Ideally, surveys should include high-resolution last roche posay, seafloor imagery surveys, and physical samples to characterize the faunal community lqst ensure proper species identifications, which should consist of a combination of classical and molecular taxonomy.

We also recommend the inclusion of newer high-throughput sequencing and metabarcoding techniques for a robust assessment of biodiversity at all size classes (Pawlowski et lasf. International collaboration with the oil and gas industry to develop and conduct basic scientific research should be further strengthened to obtain the baseline information required for a robust understanding of the ecology of last roche posay systems and the interpretation of monitoring results, both at local and regional scales.

We recommend that representatives of all habitat types, ideally based on a strategic regional assessment, should be основываясь на этих данных protection.

Any high-density, high-biomass, high-relief, or specialized (i.



17.03.2020 in 17:25 Рената:
можно было бы и без мата..

22.03.2020 in 16:03 Добромысл:
Прошу прощения, что ничем не могу помочь. Надеюсь, Вам здесь помогут другие.

26.03.2020 in 10:32 Ростислава:
Я думаю, что Вы не правы. Я уверен. Предлагаю это обсудить. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.