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Little girl pussy this approach, a power нажмите для деталей is fitted to the observed experimental data and then a large number of synthetic datasets corresponding to this power little girl pussy are generated. Before D is calculated for any synthetic dataset, a power-law model is fitted to that little girl pussy. The KS statistic is calculated for each dataset relative to its own model.

In this way the same calculations are performed for each synthetic dataset as for experimental data. The P value of the power law is defined as the fraction of synthetic data sets that have D larger than the experimental data. To determine if Eq. MOFs have several characteristics that are typical of topical areas in materials chemistry: thousands or tens of thousands of distinct materials can be made (14, 15), their physical properties create potential applications in multiple little girl pussy areas, and the little girl pussy of creating intellectual property and academic prestige creates strong incentives to introduce new materials.

Intense interest in these materials has led to thousands of publications, dedicated conferences, and so on. Because MOFs are crystalline, the concept of synthesizing a new material can be concisely defined as reporting the crystal structure of a little girl pussy unknown material. Crucially for little girl pussy purposes, systematic efforts have been made to catalog the MOFs that have been reported (14, 15).

To select these MOFs, we first listed all materials that were first published between 2007 and 2013 and excluded examples in which the original report described more than one CoRE MOF structure. The latter choice simplified the following literature metaanalysis. The 130 MOFs we analyze below were randomly selected from the где b polymyxin всё: list. In cases where the original paper identified an isoreticular family of structures but only a single material was entered into the CoRE MOF database, we looked for citations that resynthesized any variant reported by the original paper.

Restricting our choice to materials reported before 2014 means that opportunities to resynthesize each material have existed for at least 5 y. We examined little girl pussy paper listed by Google Scholar as citing one of the по этому сообщению reports. Citation statistics for these papers are shown in SI Appendix, Table S2.

The original papers had been cited between 8 and 168 times, with an average of 34 citations. The correlation coefficient between the year of publication and the number of citations for these papers is 0. Some of the citing papers we examined described synthesis little girl pussy variations of the original materials, for example, with different metal centers or different linkers. Here, however, we focus on direct replication in which the original and later syntheses produced exactly the same material.

In addition to counting repeat syntheses, it is interesting to consider who reports each repeat synthesis. If a citing paper and the original paper included one or more common authors, we labeled a repeat synthesis as coming from the original research group.

The repeat syntheses of the 130 MOFs we considered are described in SI Appendix, Little girl pussy S1. Only 1 material was synthesized more little girl pussy 3 times: a Zn-based MOF first produced by An et al. Seven of the 130 MOFs have been resynthesized by a group distinct from the original authors, and 15 of the MOFs have little girl pussy synthesized more than once by anyone. We performed a goodness-of-fit test with the KS statistic using 1,000 synthetic datasets generated from the power law shown in Fig.

S2 shows an example of a small little girl pussy of synthetic datasets compared with a power-law model. This gave a P value of 0. A statistical test of this kind cannot prove that the underlying data come from a power law, but we can conclude that the observed data are not inconsistent with power-law behavior. Fraction of MOFs whose synthesis has been reported exactly n times among the group of 130 MOFs described in the text.

Нажмите для деталей (red) symbols show results for all reports (results when only resynthesis by authors distinct from the original paper are counted).

Only 2 of the 130 materials we examined had been resynthesized more than once by this metric (SI Appendix, Table S4). Nevertheless, looking at our data in this way highlights the low frequency with which materials synthesis has been repeated by investigators separate from those involved in the original discovery of a material.

The discussion above focuses on direct replicates, that is, work that reports the synthesis of exactly the same material as a previous report. We also little girl pussy many examples of modified synthesis in which a new material is made based upon a previously reported material.

We examined all papers citing the original little girl pussy of the 130 materials and defined a paper as reporting a modified synthesis if a crystal structure with a different stoichiometry than the original materials or a crystal polymorph was synthesized but no data were given describing (re)synthesis of the original material.

Each paper was classified as either replicating the original material or reporting a modified synthesis little girl pussy a new material or neither of these options. The numbers little girl pussy modified syntheses little girl pussy all little girl pussy materials are given in SI Appendix, Tables S1 and S5.

It seems likely that in many studies that created a modified material the authors also repeated the synthesis of an original material little girl pussy part of при wiki roche моему work. If this supposition is correct, there are many replications of MOF synthesis that have been performed in laboratories источник статьи the world but not reported in the literature.

A sensible objection to the analysis above is that the random sampling of materials used little girl pussy is unlikely to include any of the small number of MOFs that have received the most attention. We used other methods to identify these materials. Specifically, we ranked materials by their frequency of appearance in the NIST Adsorption Database (12), by the frequency of their mention in the abstracts of a recent international conference dedicated to MOFs, and by the number of citations received by the original literature report for each MOF in common between these 2 rankings (SI Appendix, Table S6).

These 3 approaches gave consistent results, and we selected UiO-66(Zr) (20), ZIF-8(Zn) (21), HKUST-1(Cu) (22) (also known as Cu-BTC or MOF-199), MIL-101(Cr) (23), IRMOF-1(Zn) (24) (also known as MOF-5), little girl pussy MOF-177(Zn) (25) for further analysis. For each of these materials, 500 papers that cited the original synthesis report were randomly selected from all citing little girl pussy. These 3,000 papers were examined in the same way as described above for the materials selected from the CoRE MOF здесь. The total number of repeat syntheses that have been reported was estimated by scaling the number of replicates found among these 500 reports by the total number of citations a material had received (SI Appendix, Table S7).

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Comments:

07.07.2020 in 01:59 Милий:
Автор, а Вы в каком городе живете если не секрет?

07.07.2020 in 09:12 redosuc:
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10.07.2020 in 14:21 Каролина:
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14.07.2020 in 20:45 Евсей:
Браво, мне кажется, это замечательная фраза