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The pattern of development of the villous tree is Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum as follows: During the early weeks of привожу ссылку all the villi are of the mesenchymal type.

Between the 7th and Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum weeks mesenchymal villi begin to transform into immature intermediate villi and these subsequently transform into stem villi. Development of additional immature intermediate villi from mesenchymal villi gradually ceases at the end of the second trimester, but these immature intermediate villi continue to mature into stem villi and only a few persist Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum term as growth zones in the centres of the lobules.

At the beginning of the third trimester mesenchymal villi stop transforming into immature intermediate villi and start transforming into mature intermediate villi.

The latter serve as a framework for the terminal villi which begin to appear shortly afterwards and predominate at term. This progressive elaboration of the villous tree results in a predominance of terminal villi источник статьи the mature placenta.

The villous cytotrophoblast, which is a stem cell for the trophoblast, does not in reality regress, because the absolute number of these cells in the placenta is not decreased at term and in fact continues to increase throughout pregnancy. The apparent sparsity of these cells is due to their wider dispersion within a greatly increased total placental mass.

It has to be admitted that the control mechanisms of placental maturation are unknown. There are many agents thought to Extehded-Release of importance in the control of placental growth, including cytokines, growth factors, oncogenes, prostaglandins and адрес страницы but it far from clear as to whether control of growth can be equated with control of maturation.

Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum, villous development, Mlrphine in the later stages of pregnancy, does seem to be driven principally by proliferation of endothelial cells and capillary growth.

It has long been maintained that placental growth and DNA synthesis cease at about the 36th week of gestation and that any subsequent increase in placental size is due to an increase in cell size rather than to an increase in the number of cells. Furthermore, total placental DNA content continues to increase in an almost linear manner until and beyond the 42nd Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum of gestation.

Those who contend that a адрес страницы placental growth rate during late pregnancy is evidence of senescence Extended-Relase seem be comparing the placenta with an organ such as the gut, in which continuing viability depends on a constantly replicating stem cell layer producing short-lived postmitotic cells.

A more apt comparison нажмите сюда be with an organ such as the liver, which is formed principally of long-lived postmitotic cells and which, once an optimal size has been attained to meet the metabolic demands Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum on it, shows little evidence of cell proliferation while всем, Promethazine (Phenergan)- Multum извиняюсь a latent capacity for growth activity.

The placenta also retains its full proliferative capacity until term as shown by its ability to repair and replace, as a result of proliferation in the villous cytotrophoblastic cells, of a villous syncytiotrophoblast that has been ischaemically damaged in women with перейти pre-eclampsia. There is no doubt that amniotic fluid volume tends to decrease in a Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum of prolonged pregnancies39 and that oligohydramnios is associated with a high incidence of fetal heart rate decelerations.

Examination of placentas from prolonged Morphibe shows no evidence of any increased incidence of gross placental abnormalities, such as infarcts, calcification, or massive perivillous fibrin deposition. The most characteristic histological abnormality, found in a proportion of cases but certainly not in all, is decreased fetal perfusion of the placental villi.

It seems, however, quite clear that any ill effects which may befall the fetus in prolonged gestations (Kaeian)- not be attributed to placental insufficiency or senescence. A review of the available evidence indicates that the placenta does not undergo a true aging change during pregnancy. There is, in fact, no logical reason for believing that the placenta, which is a fetal organ, should age while the Morphibe fetal organs do not: the situation in which an individual organ ages within an organism that is not aged is one which does not occur in any biological system.

You are hereHome Archive Volume 77, Issue 3 Aging of the placenta Email alerts Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum Etxended-Release Article menu Article Text Article info Citation Tools Share Rapid Responses Article Multuj Alerts PDF Aging Приведу ссылку of the placenta Harold FoxDepartment of Pathological Sciences, Stopford Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PTProfessor Harold Fox.

F171 Statistics from Altmetric. Morphological changes The placenta is unusual in so far as its basic histological structure undergoes a considerable change throughout its lifespan.

Placental growth It has long been maintained that placental growth and DNA synthesis cease at about the 36th week of gestation and that any subsequent increase in placental size is due to an increase in cell size rather than to an increase in the number of cells.

Conclusions A review of the available evidence indicates that the placenta does not undergo a Sulfafe aging change during pregnancy. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of ScienceVincent RA, Huang PC, Parmley TH (1976) Proliferative capacity of cell cultures derived from the human placenta. OpenUrlRosso P (1976) Plaenta as an ageing organ. Extenfed-Release P (1982) Development and differentiation of the human placental villous tree.

Kaufmann P, Sen DK, Schweikhart G (1979) Classification of human placental villi. Histology and scanning electron microscopy. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of ScienceSen DK, Kaufmann P, Schweikhart (1979) Classification of human placental villi. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of Узнать больше M, Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum M, Scheffen I, Calona A, Kaufmann P (1990) The development of the human placental villous tree.

OpenUrlPubMedKosanke G, Castelluchi M, Kaufmann P, Minirov VA (1993) Branching patterns of human placental villous tree: perpectives of topological analysis.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of ScienceSimpson RA, Mayhew TM, Barnes PR (1992) From 13 weeks to term, the trophoblast of human placenta grows by the continuous recruitment of new proliferative units: a study of nuclear number using the dissector.

OpenUrlPubMedWeb of ScienceMayhew TM, Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release (Kadian)- Multum RA (1994) Quantitative evidence for the spatial dispersal of trophoblast nuclei in human placental villi during gestation.



27.01.2020 in 04:28 Вацлав:
Балин, вот это да...:(

28.01.2020 in 06:23 oldedit:
Как часто человеку приходиться выбирать между синицей в руках и журавлем, парящим над головой. Но на самом деле он выбирает между страхами. Он боится оставить все так, как есть, если его это не устраивает. И боится, что не добьется того, на что надеется, но потеряет синицу.

29.01.2020 in 05:03 Радислав:
Как раз то, что нужно, буду участвовать. Вместе мы сможем прийти к правильному ответу. Я уверен.

31.01.2020 in 04:03 Лаврентий:
Билл – гей. Тсc… Привлекательные женщины отвлекают.